domingo, 8 de setembro de 2013

HETERÓNIMOS DE ATENA II - ATENA PARTENOS, por arturjotaef.

"Parthenos" ("Virgin") usually means Athene; but in this case it means either the Tauric Artemis (see 5. 3. 12 and Diod. Sic. 4.44), or (what is more likely) Iphigenia (see Herodotus, 4. 103). In saying "deity," and not "goddess," Strabo seems purposely non-committal as between the two. ---- (Strabo Geography 7.4.2)

Ora bem, outro epíteto de Atena que corresponde quase que seguramente a este mesmo conceito é o de Atena Partenos. Atena Partenos foi a rainha do céu!

De facto, o Partenon, o mais belo templo da autoria de Fídeas construído na acrópole de Atenas na época áurea da civilização grega imortaliza este epíteto majestático da deusa das artes civis e da estratégia bélica.

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Figura 1: Maqueta da acrópole de Atenas com o belo Partenon, bem no alto.

The new temple built for Athena on the acropolis became known as the Parthenon, meaning "the house of the virgin goddess," from the Greek word for a virginal female, parthenos. As the patron godddess of Athens, Athena had long possessed another sanctuary on the acropolis. ---[1]

At any rate, her temples were usually on an acropolis. In Athens (named after her, or vice versa -- we do not know which) she became the goddess of the whole land.

E óbvio que foi Atena quem deu o nome à cidade de quem era padroeira e não a inversa porque, se foi assim até há bem pouco tempo, tê-lo-ia sido muito mais propriamente nos tempos áureos da mitologia e da religiosidade humana!

In Homer, Athena is the protectress of heroes, appearing invisible to others at their side and accounting for their extraordinary success.

She may originally have been a version of the Mycenaean palace goddess, corresponding to the goddesses. (…)

As a protectress of heroes she was a warrior herself, and was shown in art with spear and helmet, wearing a breastplate called the aegis (originally a magic goatskin). In classical times she had no consort, but this was probably not always the case. ---[2]

A mitologia clássica de Atena foi a consequência tardia da “leitura literal” de mitos arcaicos que definiam esta deusa como Virgem Mãe fenómeno que não teria tido mecanismos psicossociais muito diversos dos que viriam a determinar o dogma cristão da Imaculada Conceição da Virgem Maria!

A este respeito a mitologia cristã criou uma intriga entre o nome do suposto pai biológico e o nome de Atena Partenos.

Um dos mais notáveis Notzrim foi Yeishu ben Pandeira, também conhecido como Yeishu ha-Notzri. Os estudiosos do Talmude sempre mantiveram que a história de Jesus começou com Yeishu. No Tosefta e no Baraitas, o nome do pai de Yeishu é Pandeira ou Panteiri.

Os Cristãos foram forçados a enfrentarem a evidência Talmudica, afirmando que o Yeishu Talmudico era uma distorção do "Jesus histórico" e que o nome "Pandeira" era simplesmente uma alteração hebraica da palavra Grega para virgem – "parthenos" propositadamente alterada para os nomes romanos conhecidos como "Pantheras" (encontrado na história de Celso) ou para "pantheros", que significa pantera, e "Pandeira" teria derivado da palavra deliberadamente alterada.

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Figura 2: reconstituição do interior do no Partenon da acrópole de Atenas com Atena Partenos de Fídeas

A verdade porém é que para os antigos mais antigos haver virgens que davam à luz nada tinha de espantoso porque estas eram apenas as jovens casadoiras quiçá ainda em finais da sua puberdade! De resto o próprio conceito grego Parthenos começou com o sentido de “mulher jovem” cujo estado mais frequente e natural seria então ainda o da virgindade!

The name Erichthonius (the "very chthonic one"), a playful interpretation of the name Erechtheus, and used in furthe playful interpretations, remained the name of the mysterious child. It would perhaps be incorrect to say that this added the aspect "son" to the earlier aspects of the masculine partner of the Goddess, i.e., "father" and "husband." The reason for this is that in the mother-son mythologem, which preceded the father-daughter mythologem also on the Acropolis of Athens, the "son" became the husband: the father was in no way yet present at the beginning of a divine genealogy that began with the mother. Without father or brother, virginity would have been meaningless, since it is a form of the most intimate connection with either one or the other of them, even when it appears as absolute independence. At some point the third aspect, "father," was added to "son" and "husband," and at this same moment the aspect "maiden" was added to "mother" and "wife." From that moment on Pallas Athena was present. -- Athena, Virgin and Mother in Greek Religion (1952) Karl Kerenyi

A verdade é que seria apenas com o advento do cristianismo que o conceito de virgindade casta viria a ser definitivamente fixado. Não deixa no entanto de ser estranho que a padroeira dos atenienses tenha sido supostamente a Virgem Mãe dum filho único como a mãe de Jesus. Porém, o dogma da Virgindade da Virgem Maria deriva tão somente do conceito teológico arcaico, tão ingenuamente lógico quanto imaginativamente intuitivo, duma Deusa Mãe primordial que só poderia ter dado à luz a primeira entidade divina por divina partenogéneses ou seja parindo o primeiro “filho de deus” sem contacto prévio com qualquer pai porque por pressuposto mítico cosmológico este ainda não havia sido concebido nem criado.

As the theme of our further reflections we elect to pursue this established duality of aspects. Its appearance is not an accidental product of history. It is so characteristic of this Goddess that we could hardly even speak of Pallas Athena if only one or the other side stood before us without the tension and polarity of both. This is what differentiates a Goddess who is able to exercise power over human beings, from a mere personification. The duality finds expression in the name of Pallas Athena itself, and at least this much is certain: one of the two names portrays the martial and virginal aspect. The meaning of Pallas (of which the plural is pallades) is handed down to us, as is also its precise differentiation from other words deriving from the same stem: it was once the name for robust maidens and implied the meaning of the masculine word pallas (pallantes in the plural) "robust young man." A distinct masculinity seems to adhere to this word even in its feminine form. It is perhaps best repeated by the Latin virago. In Attica, legend told of a Pallas who was a "teacher of Giants," a hero after whom the land of Pallene was named and most likely himself a Giant. -- Athena, Virgin and Mother in Greek Religion (1952) Karl Kerenyi.

Pallas > Grec. pallantes > Lat. parentis

< Phar-An-tis > partenis > parthenus > Parthenos.

O grego Parthenos reporta-nos na ressonância da língua lusa para o «parto» e então para um conceito de virgindade enquanto ausência de “carûnculas mirtiformes” resultantes da ruptura himenal do pós-parto, ou seja Parthenos = Parth (= «parto»???) + an (=sem)! Porém, a verdade é que só em latim é que partus (< pareo, = lit. «aparecer» no sentido comum de vir à luz do dia) tem este significado e em grego o termo mais próximo deste conceito seria eupatris < eu-partis, lit. “filho de pai legítimo”???

Os «eupátridas» gregos eram o equivalente dos «patrícios» romanos e em ambos os casos estamos perante conotações linguísticas que nos reportam sobretudo para a relação de parentesco que naturalmente teria que ter estado relacionado com o direito de nascimento de tipo patriarcal.

Sendo assim, suspeita-se que Atena Partenos seja uma submissão mítica da deusa mãe primordial, das cobras e do matriarcado cretense, ao patriarcado ateniense.

Porém, a etimologia de Parthenos afigura-se tão arcaica quanto o culto palacial da Virgem Mãe.

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Figura 3: Atena Partenos de Fídias.

Parthenos, Lacon. parsenos Aristoph. Lys. 1263 (lyr.). hê, maiden, girl;(…) also gunê parthenos (…); p. kora, of the Sphinx, (…) ; of Persephone, (…) opp. gunê, (…) 2. of unmarried women who are not virgins,(…)  3. Parthenos, hê, the Virgin Goddess, as a title of Athena at Athens,(…); of Artemis,(…); of the Tauric Iphigenia, (…); of an unnamed goddess, (….), of the Vestal Virgins, (…) 4. the constellation Virgo, (…) II. as Adj., maiden, chaste. III. as masc., parthenos, ho, unmarried man, Apoc.14.4. ---Liddell-Scott-Jones Lexicon of Classical Greek.

Eupatris, idos, hê, fem. of foreg., born of a noble sire. [3]

Em boa verdade Parthenos deve ser um termo arcaico que sempre teria andado associado a virgens mães como se refere ter sido o caso de Atena, Artemisa etc. tudo indiciando que afinal estaremos perante uma flagrante proliferação de deidades que não seriam senão variantes locais da mesma arcaica Virgem Mãe primordial.

The title of Kerenyi's essay [Athena, Virgin and Mother in Greek Religion, 1952] on Athena naturally leads us to associate this mythologem with a Christian counterpart, the Virgin Mary. The parallels are striking, but the differences are equally important. Both figures are virginal mothers; both are primarily committed to the spirit of the Father; both soften and mediate the spirit of the archaic Father; both are concerned with mercy and justice. Athena, however, is not a theotokos ("God-bearer") in the sense that Mary is, nor does she show the same attitude of unambivalent receptivity to the Father. The tonal quality surrounding Athena is more defensive, more militant, and more supportive of heroic striving. One could speculate that the countries of northern Europe (and of Protestantism) inherited more of the spirit of Pallas Athena, while the countries of southern Europe (and of Catholicism) received and cultivated more the spirit of the Christian Virgin-Mother. The receptive maternal elements in Pallas Athena, while present, are more subdued and hidden in the background, behind her defensive armaments, than is the case with the Virgin Mary. With the Virgin Mary the maternal flame, the glowing womb, is prominent; with Pallas Athena it is concealed. This describes a difference in soul-quality between Protestantism and Catholicism.

(…) Athena becomes a defender of the patriarchal order and is bound to imitation of the father's spirit, but in this his archaic elements are deflected from his daughter. These aggressive elements can now be directed elsewhere. The father, meanwhile, is seduced into trusting and protecting this daughter who is so much like himself. Her defense, aimed toward fending off the archaic elements of the father and to do this by advancing and supporting his more "spiritual" side, also includes denial: the mysterious child born to Athena is secretly whisked off in the dead of night, so as to preserve (or restore) her pristine virginity and to secure her position as the father's "spiritual" alter-ego.

There is a dark night among the cultic celebrations of Athena, and there is a passage through affliction. All is not  bright-eyed heroic striving. We come upon the poignancy and  depth in the image when we look carefully into what is being defended. We must face the conundrum that the father's daughter is protecting neither her virginity per se, nor her privileged relationship with the father, which amounts to the same thing. Her closeness to him and her identification with him are themselves defenses against his archaic threats to her womanhood. But because she has used the defense of identification-with-the-aggressor, she has no means left open for full expression of her womanhood. This is the trap of the soul which has chosen the defense of heroic striving against the threat of the persecution of the archaic father. What is being protected by Pallas is expressed in the image of the small flame in the fire-pan, which according to Kerenyi, explains the name Athena. Pallas protects Athena. What she protects, therefore, is a core of womanhood as it finds itself besieged by the archaic spirit of the father. And since all men represent father to her, none can be allowed into her womb. Her womb, while not barren literally, remains inviolate psychologically: hence, she is both mother (literally) and virgin (psychologically). Her literal mothering is performed for the fatherland, while her psychological (soulful) mothering is reserved for the children never born to this world. This is one meaning of Athena's connection to Persephone and to the fertility of the realm of unborn souls. -- Athena, Virgin and Mother in Greek Religion. Translator's Afterthoughts Murray Stein.

Na verdade o caso de Perséfone é mesmo um instantâneo flagrante da passagem da fase de Virgem Mãe Deméter à de virgem filha Korê!

Parthenos ó Lacon. Parsenos > Perse-An + Ki

=> Perse-Ki-An => Perséfone.

Partenos < Phartinus < palathinus > Pallatina => Pallas Atena

Então, a definição que é dada para Parthenos como correspondendo a «filha» passa assim a ter a sua fundamentação no mito de Deméter.

De facto é mais do que evidente que Partenos tem uma relação fonética suspeita que faz de Atena Partenos uma redundância de Palas Atena = Partenos.

Atena < At Kina < Ash Ki Ana, literalmente “o fogo da terra e do céu, ou deusa do fogo da terra” | Partenos, lit.a que foi parida solitariamente pelo Sr.(Zeus)”, razão do grande equívoco relativo ou episódio caricato do nascimento de Atena da cabeça de Zeus???

<= Phar-Ten < *Kar-Ten, lit. “a cobra do Kur = o crescente lunar”.

ð     (Mel) Kart Ana, a Sr.ª do Carque, do concelho de Resende.

ð     Kartena, a deusa mãe das cobras cretenses que pode ter sido Kur-tina, ou seja uma cortesã nos palácios templares de Creta < Kuret > «corte»!

<= Kar kinos < Kur Ki An, lit. «Nincursague, a deusa da montanha entre a terra e o céu e esposa de Enki

Outra conclusão que se pode retirar desta heurística é que Creta não passava duma ilha sagrada onde se centralizava o culto religioso templar como entre os judeus era em Jerusalém! A etimologia que permitiu chegar ao nome desta ilha era assim o Kur, a montanha protegida e defendida onde se elevavam os palácios templares e de que derivou o termo peninsular das «cortes régias». Outra análise permite verificar que no núcleo do termo Partenos / Phar-Tumnus (literalmente “a cobra solar” da cornucópia da Furtuna) está o elo etimológico entre a Creta minóica e o Egipto faraónico e a explicação do carácter arcaico da deusa latina da fortuna e da cornucópia.

 

Ver: CORNUCÓPIA & FORTUNA (***)

 

According to the Homeric Hymn to Hermes, Pallas, provided there with a father who is otherwise unknown, was the father of the moon Goddess, Selene.Hesiod's Pallas is a son of the Titan Crius, a brother of Astraius, and of the father of the moon Goddess, Hecate, and himself the father of Zelos, Cratus, Bia, and Nike. This last Goddess is also known as Athena Nike, but the remaining siblings -- "Zeal," "Strength," and "Might" -- are also worthy of relationship to the indefatigable battle Goddess. An archaic winged God named Pallas -- with wings attached to the ankles, or winged like the archaic winged Goddesses, among whom Athena herself may be numbered --

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Figura 4: Arcaica Atena alada.

was according to one tradition the father of Pallas Athena.

É evidente que o conjunto do nome de Atena Partenos determina que:

= Ash Ki An + Kar Ki An =>

ð     Anat & Afrodite, facto que, ou esconde a faceta da Deusa Mãe em Atena ou revela , pelo menos, na semântica redundante do seu nome uma relação arcaica de Afrodite com a filha parida no céu (que era a divina cabeça de Zeus). Tal como Inana, com quem compartilhava os mochos sagrados como animais tutelares das divinas leis, Atena foi também a deusa da esperteza e da sabedoria.

ð     Anash + An Kar kika => An (At-Kur-at) => Atargat(is).

This is intriguing, since both Anat and Athtoret were companions of Baal in Ugarit. In fact, the two goddesses are so frequently associated with one another that the names may simply be alternative ways of designating the same individual, Anat (possibly meaning "The Violent One" or "The Lover") being the title of the goddess in her youthful, wargoddess guise. In the Baal Cycle, Tablet II, Column II, when Ball seizes Yamm to slay him, it is Anat/Athtart who stop him: "His right hand Anat seizes, His left hand Athtart seizes" (where the usual pattern of poetic repitition implies that the same event is simply being reitterated using different terms for Athtart. The identification of Anat and Athtart is further supported by the fusion of these two names as the goddess Antit at Beth-Shan, as `Antart in Egypt, Anatanta at Tanis in Egypt during the period of Ramses II, as `Anat-Ashtart in later Syria, and as `Attar`atta (Greek, Atargatis) in Aramaic language. -- An Anthropologist Looks at the Judeo-Christian Scriptures, Background: Religion in the Ancient Semitic World, Middle-Eastern Polytheism [4]

Anat < Anatu < Ana-Kiki > Ana-titi > Antit > Titan ó Tanit < Tanish > Tanis.             Anatu ó Antu => Anatanta <= Anat Antu < Anat-Anat.

 

Ver: ATENA (***)

 

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Figura 5: A mitologia etrusca, que revela muitos arcaísmos na sua morfologia, dá-nos na imagem deste espelho uma visão de Minerva que tem tanto de Atena quanto de Medusa, quanto de Istar. Dito de outro modo, não parecem restar dúvidas de que as Hárpias eram apenas a forma tridiva da deusa mãe das cobras cretenses.

In the war against the Giants a certain Pallas confronted Athena and was killed by her; she even tore off his skin. She did the same thing, however, to her father Pallas, who bad lustfully seduced his own daughter.

The father-daughter mythologem is thus transmitted both through the masculine and feminine Pallas, not in the form of a serpent wedding but in that of a seduction scene between archaic Deities, probably two winged beings.

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Figura 6: Atena na gigantomaquia ataca o gigante Palas.

The setting in the form of a war against the Giants is a dilution of this, suited to classical mythology. The saga of Pallas, son of Lycaon and founder of the Arcadian town Pallantion, represents a further dilution. At this level Pallas is seen only as the teacher of Athena, yet also as father of Nike and Chryse, two manifestations of the Goddess herself. At the same level of dilution the incest motif appears again, behind the lightly disguised name of the Goddess, but in the form of a consummated marriage between her and the "teacher." According to the Boeotian saga, from the realm of Athena Alalcomene or Alalcomeneis, the primal man Alalcomeneus reared Pallas Athena. His wife is also mentioned: she was named Athenais. Excepts from Athena, Virgin and Mother in Greek Religion (1952), Karl Kerenyi.

 

Ver: PALAS ATENA (***)



[1] Thomas Martin Overview of Archaic and Classical Greek History 9.4.6.

[2] Thomas Martin Overview of Archaic and Classical Greek History 9.4.6.

[3] Liddell-Scott-Jones Lexicon of Classical Greek.

[4] This page last updated on 15 January 1999. Copyright © 1999, Richley H. Crapo.

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